Building Sustainable and Robust CCUS infrastructure: A Cornerstone of the Energy Transition
15 Jun 2022
Carbon Capture, Utilisation & Storage
In addition to being cost-efficient, the CCUS infrastructure must be safe and accessible for maintenance. However, our judgement on hazards of new things can be best perceived when compared to existing experiences and currently, there is limited industrial experience in CCUS. For example, often the closet experience for dense phase CO2 transportation and storage is natural gas handling. Hazards, risks, and design practices for natural gas pipes serve as the compass in CCUS risk assessment. That is not sufficient. CO2 is a known asphyxiant and it can harm people and environment. It also forms acid solution in aqueous phase leading to corrosion issues and pipe cracks. In presence of small amounts of impurities typical to industrial CO2 streams and in the event of incidental formation of water in the pipeline, CO2 pipelines can experience very low PH levels and corrosion can start in matter of hours or days. Pipe cracks and thus depressurization in turn may lead to severely low temperatures. Steel exposed to low temperature can experience embrittlement. The above risks of stress on infrastructure materials cannot be left unmitigated. Mitigation however is only possible through appropriate choice of materials at the design phase, removing impurities from CO2 where possible and close monitoring of the infrastructure through its entire lifecycle. The presentation discusses selecting materials for cost-efficient, safe and sustainable CO2 transport and storage infrastructure.